Thursday, March 06, 2003

Welcome to the International
Telecommunication Union


Webpage for external

color=#008000 size=-1>

Services through the QISV Program


The Voters Telecommunications Watch


National Telecommunications and
Information Administration


Federal Standard 1037C:
Glossary of Telecommunications Terms


The Institute for
Telecommunication Sciences (ITS)


TeleCommunication Systems -


  • TeleCommunication Systems, Inc. a provider of wireless
    location and messaging software, took a loss of USD 90 million on the 70 USD
    million revenue in 2001. A year earlier the company’s loss was USD 30 million on
    the USD 67 million revenue. These are pro forma numbers that assume that assumes
    the acquisition of Xypoint Corporation was completed on January 1, 2000 instead
    a year later.
    Source: href="">

  • TCS is a technology provider to carriers worldwide
    including Verizon Wireless, Vodafone, Cingular, VoiceStream and Telefonica. The
    TCS/Mobileway partnership will pursue direct connect agreements with North
    American carriers and establish premium content revenue share deals with
    carriers on behalf of TCS' and Mobileway's media and enterprise
    Source: href="">

  • TeleCommunication Systems, Inc. (TCS) is a leading
    developer of low-cost but highly advanced network applications enabling the
    delivery of Internet content, short messages, and enhanced communication
    services to a wide variety of wireless devices including phones, two-way pagers
    and personal digital assistants. Founded in 1987 as a provider of communications
    engineering services, TCS later recognized the demand for network application
    software that provides for the delivery of data to a variety of mobile devices,
    and, as a result, expanded its business over the past several years to focus on
    the development of this software. TCS software has been installed in 30 US and
    international wireless carrier networks, including Verizon Wireless, Telefonica
    International, US West, Airtouch, Sprint PCS, Comcast Cellular, VoiceStream
    Wireless, and Frontier among others. On August 8, 2000, TCS successfully
    completed an IPO and currently trades on NASDAQ under the symbol TSYS.
    class=f>Source: href="">

Home - Pakistan Telecommunication




Interesting Telecommunications Websites:

For the past few weeks I was busy with my preparation, but i managed to find some interesting websites...


    Provides news and lists service providers for the telecommunications industry.
    Find resources for broadband, satellite, wireless, and telephony.



    Trade organization with more than 1000 large and small companies that provide
    communications and information technology products and services.



    The official site of the Ministry of Science and Technology, one of the
    Ministries of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, provides a framework for the
    strategic economic development and growth of the country. The Ministry
    encourages the introduction and development of new technologies, it provides
    support to research and higher education, and it promotes the use of
    information technologies at all levels.



    The official PTA website... Pakistan Telecommunication Authority was formed
    under the Pakistan Telecommunication Reorganization Act, 1996. It is a
    regulatory body, which regulates the establishment, operation and maintenance
    of telecommunication services. It also promotes and protects the interests of
    telecommunication service providers and users, ensuring that the consumers get
    high quality services at competitive prices, with a reasonable range of



    Use this directory to find telecommunication franchise opportunities and
    businesses for sale. Search for priority and standard listings, and request



    TelecomCareers.Net is the source for telecommunications jobs, news, training
    and career tools. Search thousands of telecommunications jobs and post your
    resume for free.



    A non-profit making organization whose
    mission is to produce the telecommunications standards that will be used
    throughout Europe and beyond.



    Offers undergraduate, master's, and doctoral levels of study in
    telecommunication. Includes admission requirements and course descriptions.



Saturday, January 25, 2003

I have come with a all new registery hack after playing with my own windows registery...

The key i discovered (looks like i know how to hack it only, hehe, i am not alone for long though)


Yes Change the Value of Default String Value from "Http://" to "Http://"

This will enable you to log all the surfing done by the people.

A good site for windows registery modifications is

What is now proved, was only imagened !

Thursday, January 23, 2003

Here are a few terms I would like the readers to read and learn about....

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection. The means of access control used by Ethernet and the IEEE 802.3 LAN protocol. CSMA/CD works like this: Networked devices wishing to transmit data over a single channel first check for carrier signals (carrier sense). If no carrier is found, transmitting can occur over the channel (multiple access). A collision occurs when two devices transmit at the same time. In this case, the collision is detected by all colliding devices and their re-transmissions are delayed for some period of time (collision detection).

MD 4-5 / Message Digest
Message digests are algorithmic operations, generally performed on text, which produce a unique signature for that text. MD-2, described in RFC 1319; MD-4, described in RFC 1320; and MD-5, described in RFC 1321 all produce a 128-bit signature. They differ in their operating speed and resistance to crypto-analytic attack. Generally, one must be traded off for the other. [RFC1983] (see also authentication, cryptographic, digital signature, security) (includes secure hash algorithm).

The result of applying a one-way hash function to a message. A message digest is a value which is shorter than the message, but would be different if the message were changed by even one character. If a message's sender includes the message digest along with the message, the receiver can verify that the message was not corrupted in transit, either accidentally or maliciously.


Integrated Services Digital Network. ISDN is an entirely digital telephone service that can be installed by the local telephone company to replace the old analog local loop (the connection to the telephone company's nearest central switching office) with a digital line. As long-distance lines are usually digital already, replacing the local loop with an ISDN line provides "end-to-end" digital service. Two types of ISDN are: BRI and PRI. ISDN BRI is the interface to connect the desktop to the digital long distance network. ISDN BRI provides two 64 kbps B ("bearer") channel to carry information content, the voice, video, and data substance of a transmission. A separate 16 kbps D ("data") channel is used for call setup and signaling. ISDN BRI is often called "2B+D" ISDN, for its combination of two B and one D channel.

Integrated Services Digital Network. ISDN is a public global network capable of transmitting voice, data and images at speeds up to 64 kbit/s. The user can be connected as an ISDN 2 or ISDN 30 customer. ISDN 2 customers are able to set up two 64 kbit/s connections simultaneously, while ISDN 30 customers are able to set up 30 simultaneous 64 kbit/s connections. Both types of customers can be connected to the telephone exchange by means of an ordinary telephone connection. Besides the ability of several simultaneous connections, ISDN offers a wide range of new services.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is a telecommunications service which connects networks through digital lines using a terminal adapter. ISDN provides a faster connection and can be more economical. In the future, ISDN boards designed to support ISDN connections through the PC will be commonplace. mTheoretically, both methods can connect single-user accounts or multiple-user accounts to the Internet.

Internet Backbone SDH SONET T-1 carrier T-3 carrier Give Us Your Feedback Short for Optical Carrier, used to specify the speed of fiber optic networks conforming to the SONET standard. The table shows the speeds for common OC levels. OC = Speed OC-1 = 51.85 Mbps OC-3 = 155.52 Mbps OC-12 = 622.08 Mbps OC-24 = 1.244 Gbps OC-48 = 2.488 Gbps

Short for Optical Carrier, used to specify the speed of fiber optic networks conforming to the SONET standard. The table shows the speeds for common OC levels: OC-1 = 51.84 Mbps OC-3 = 155.52 Mbps OC-12 = 622.08 Mbps OC-24 = 1.244 Gbps OC-48 = 2.488 Gbps

Short for Optical Carrier, representing the speed of fiber-optic networks. OC ratings can range anywhere between 1 and 768. As and example: an OC-3 has the ability to transfer data at the rate of up to 155.52 Mbps. CEDATA uses a minimum rating of OC-48 accross its backbone (2.488 Gbps).


Wednesday, January 22, 2003

Hello.. lately I have been preparing for my hourlies...

I was presented with a mind bogling issue, why are there 1000 bits in one kilobit and why are there 1024 bytes in a kilibytes.

Bits, Bytes, Mega, Giga, Tera (explained)

1 bit = a 1 or 0 (b)
4 bits = 1 nybble (?)
8 bits = 1 byte (B)
1024 bytes = 1 Kilobyte (KB)
1024 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte (MB)
1024 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte (GB)
1024 Gigabytes = 1 Terabyte (TB)

Common prefixes:
- kilo, meaning 1,000. (one thousand) 10^3 (Kilometer, 1,000 meters)
- mega, meaning 1,000,000. (one million) 10^6 (Megawatt, 1,000,000 watts)
- giga, meaning 1,000,000,000 (one billion) 10^9 (Gigawatt, 1,000,000,000 watts)
- tera, meaning 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion) 10^12

The smallest amount of transfer is the bit. It holds the value of a 1, or a 0. (Binary coding). Eight of these 1's and zero's are called a byte.

Why eight? The earliest computers could only send 8 bits at a time, it was only natural to start writing code in sets of 8 bits. This came to be called a byte.

A bit is represented with a lowercase "b," whereas a byte is represented with an uppercase "b" (B). So Kb is kilobits, and KB is kilobytes. A kilobyte is eight times larger than a kilobit.

A simple 1 or 0, times eight of these 1's and 0's put together is a byte. The string of code: 10010101 is exactly one byte. So a small gif image, about 4 KB has about 4000 lines of 8 1's and 0's. Since there are 8 per line, that's over (4000 x 8) 32,000 1's and 0's just for a single gif image.

How many bytes are in a kilobyte (KB)? One may think it's 1000 bytes, but its really 1024. Why is this so? It turns out that our early computer engineers, who dealt with the tiniest amounts of storage, noticed that 2^10 (1024) was very close to 10^3 (1000); so based on the prefix kilo, for 1000, they created the KB. (You may have heard of kilometers (Km) which is 1000 meters). So in actuality, one KB is really 1024 bytes, not 1000. It's a small difference, but it adds up over a while.

The MB, or megabyte, mega meaning one million. Seems logical that one mega (million) byte would be 1,000,000 (one million) bytes. It's not however. One megabyte is 1024 x 1024 bytes. 1024 kilobytes is called one Megabyte. So one kilobyte is actually 1024 bytes, and 1024 of those is (1024 x 1024) 1048576 bytes. In short, one Megabyte is really 1,048,576 bytes.

There's a difference of about 48 KB, which is a decent amount. If you have a calculator, you will notice that there is actually a 47KB difference. There is a difference of 48,576 bytes, divided by 1024, and you get the amount of real kilobytes... 47.4375

All of this really comes into play when you deal with Gigabytes, or roughly one billion bytes. One real Gigabyte is actually 1024 bytes x 1024 bytes x 1024 bytes...1,073,741,824. However, most people like to simplify this by simply saying that one Gigabyte is only 1,000,000,000 (one billion) bytes; which makes sense because the prefix Giga means one billion.


A kilobit came into existence quite late (in comparison with the former) and is used for measuring data transfer while kilbyte is primarly used for measuring data. And a kilobit is the acutate 1000 of the kilo... and the symbol used is kb.

Thats just about it... adios

Sunday, January 19, 2003

The hourlies week is on at SZABIST and We have also got intro to our semester projects and also a share of the 1st assignments in each subject.

Our very first Telecommunications we got to get to define:

- Telecommunications
- Networking
- Networks

and differenciate between:

- Internetworking
- Data Network
- Voice Netwirk
- Data Communication
- Computer Communication

Chao From Here

Saturday, January 11, 2003

WLL (Wire Less Local Loop) and Coded Division Multiple Access (CDMA) is now available in Pakistan
by the local 'TeleCard' company.

Key features are as follows:

- Immediate activation-Lead time of 30 minutes
- Wireless Connection
- Cost effective
- No Fix line rent
- No hidden cost all inclusive
- Manage your own bills -- No fix billing per month
- No Security Fee
- No Guarantees are required
- 24-Hour Free Customer Services & Support
- 24-Hour Network Availability
- 24 Hour Balance update/ E-billing Available
- 24 Hour ISD and NWD dialing facility is available
- Can easily use with PABX System
- Can easily monitor your billing
- Can easily move to another location etc.
- Conference calling
- SMS (coming shortly)
- Incoming(coming shortly)
- Bandwidth on demand (coming shortly)
3 rules of a aspiring professional (that's me)

Some lessons I learnt the hardway...

1. Never compare your ethical and professional limits with your comrades, Make your own goals and live up to your standards, strive for the very best in you. Remember every thing is possible.

2. Always study things in a natural broad (in nature every entity has a relation with many other) way, combinging every thing with all the things, this leads to much better and permenant understanding of the subject.

3. Strive for knowelghe, make chains (that is to relate new words, definations and study the whole concepts) and try to learn most of the stuff. Start Ask your self why ?

Thursday, January 09, 2003

Buzzword For 2003 ENum



Is an IETF standard, also being considered by the ITU-T, that uses the domain name system (DNS) to map E.164 telephone numbers to Web addresses or uniform resource locators (URL).

Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, Acronyms and Abbreviations

An IETF standard finalized in October 2000 that allows an end user to type a telephone number into a Web browser and access a listing of Internet resources for that number, such as addresses for IP telephony, e-mail or Web sites.


Description of Working Group:

This working group has defined a DNS-based architecture and protocol [RFC 2916] by which an E.164 number, as defined in ITU Recommendation E.164, can be expressed as a Fully Qualified Domain Name in a specific Internet Infrastructure domain defined for this purpose ( The result of the ENUM query is a series of DNS NAPTR resource records [RFC2915] which can be used to contact a resource (e.g.URI) associated with that number.
The Working Group proposes to advance RFC 2916 from Proposed Standard to Draft Standard.


E.164 numbers are globally unique, language independent identifiers for resources on Public Telecommunication Networks that can support many different services and protocols. E.164 numbers are used to identify ordinary phones, fax machines, pagers, data modems, email clients, text terminals for the hearing impaired, etc.

A prospective caller may wish to discover which services and protocols are supported by the terminal named by a given telephone number. The caller may also require more information than just the telephone number to communicate with the terminal.

The holder of an E.164 number or device may wish to control what URI's, are associated with that number.

Working Group Revised Goals and Scope:

1. The working group will update RFC 2916 to reference the DDDS system (revision of RFC 2915) and advance RFC 2916 to Draft Standard.

2. The working group will examine and document various aspects of ENUM administrative and/or operational procedures as Informational. Issues to be considered include privacy and security considerations in storing ENUM related data as well as validation and authentication of data, including DDDS NAPTR records in the DNS. The working group will coordinate activities in these areas with the DNSEXT WG and PROVREG WG when appropriate.

3. The Working Group will continue to maintain appropriate contact and liaison with standards bodies and groups, specifically ITU-T SG2, in order to provide technical or educational information as needed, such as the appropriate use of DNS. The Working Group will encourage the exchange of technical information within the emerging global ENUM community as well as documentation on practical experiences with implementations or administration of RFC 2916.

Goals and Milestones:

Done Initial draft of Service ENUM Requirements
Done Initial draft of ENUM Protocol
Done Revised draft of ENUM Protocol
Done Submit ENUM Protocol document to IESG for publication as Proposed
JUN 02 Revise and update RFC 2916 appropriate to DDDS (revision of 2915) and advance to Draft Standard
JUL 02 Document appropriate ENUM Registration and Provisioning Procedures (Informational)
AUG 02 Document appropriate ENUM Operational Security, Privacy Issues and Procedures (Informational)

ENum on the web Try Google
Telecommunication Again... (the TC Bug's killing me)

This time the book lovers would bless me, here are the most interesting books to be read on Telecommunications.

Highway of Dreams: A Critical View Along the Information Superhighway
by A. Michael Noll. 236 pgs.
How America Got On-Line: Politics, Markets, and the Revolution in Telecommunications
by Alan Stone. 242 pgs.
Telecommunications, Mass Media, and Democracy: The Battle for the Control of U.S. Broadcasting, 1928-1935
by Robert W. McChesney. 400 pgs.
Perspectives on Radio and Television: Telecommunication in the United States
by F. Leslie Smith, John W. Wright II, David H. Ostroff. 735 pgs.
Wireless: Strategically Liberalizing the Telecommunications Market
by Brian J. W. Regli. 288 pgs.
Telecommunications Policy: Have Regulators Dialed the Wrong Number?
by Donald L. Alexander. 176 pgs.
Telecommunications Strategy for Economic Development
by William H. Read, Jan L. Youtie. 164 pgs.
The Making of Energy and Telecommunications Policy
by Georgia A. Persons. 196 pgs.
Having All the Right Connections: Telecommunications and Rural Viability
by Peter F. Korsching, Patricia C. Hipple, Eric A. Abbott. 348 pgs.
A Communication Theory Perspective on Telecommunications Policy, in Journal of Communication
by Edward M. Lenert. 21 pgs.

Unfortunaltely (or maybe fortunately) I don't have access to such tele wonders.....

Read till you drop, and after you drop... please stop reading, hehe
Heres Me with more info on Telecommunications (its not that I like the subject much but I am sure it's gonna get interting)

Here are the TOP of the TC's (Buzzwords for the curious)

Lets start from W:(a tribute to the world wide web)

A data transmission network which routes messages according
to available paths, assures that the message will be
received as it was sent, provides for user security, high
speed transmission and conferencing among terminals.

The lowest loss in dB at which a trunk facility can be
operated considering limitations of echo, crosstalk, noise
and singing.

An interface arrangement provided by the telephone company
to accomodate the connections of non-carrier provided voice
terminal equipment to the public switched telephone network.

Any of the frequencies in the band 300-3,400 Hz which must
be transmitted to reproduce the voice with reasonable

An access line suitable for voice, low-speed data,
facsimile, or telegraph service. Generally, it has a
frequency range of about 300-3000 Hz.

A circuit designed to DDD network standards which is
suitable for voice, low-speed data, facsimile, or telegraph

WATS permits customers to make (OUTWATS) or receive
(INWATS) long-distance calls and to have them billed on
a bulk rather than individual call basis. The service
is provided within selected service areas, or bands,
by means of special private access lines connected to
the pubic telephone network via WATS-equipped central
offices. A single access line permits inward or outward
service, but not both.

A term applied to facilities or circuits where bandwidths
are greater than that required for one voice channel.

The physical structure that houses one or more central
office switching systems.

More Terms can be found from the links below

and don't forget to visit

Thats it for today, as I have to program a Regular Expression to Finite Automata (and ViceVersa) Convertor

Deja vu, Rai
Hmmmmmm... now I have got a BLOG... You are most welcomed to read it....

This post should have been the top one but alas my first time with a blogger, screwed that up.

Well you will find here something about me and my ways about computer science and my philosophy of life.

Let me introduce me to dear you.

They call me Rai (Friends) I call me Rai and my parents call me Umair . A little chubby and still young at heart
I like being boss on the pc, although with more then 5 years with it, I treat my computer more like a friend (i dont know
what the computer thinks about me, but i am sure he does not dislike me, hehe).

Alas... Time Has Come, Good Bye For Tommorow... Tea Time

Doing BCS is becoming interesting. SZABIST seems so fine now after spening almost two years there....

This semester a hard shot course is driving me crazy (although not up the wall yet, hehe).

Well let's get clear with one thing today.... Lets see whats TeleCommunications is all about.

Telecommunications can be defined as:

Telecommunications is more than just voice and data. Telecommunications also encompasses many other building systems, including environmental control, security, audio, television, sensing, alarms, and paging. Telecommunications embraces all low voltage signal systems which convey information within buildings.

Telecommunications refers to long-distance communication (the Greek tele means "far off"). At present, such communication is carried out with the aid of electronic equipment such as the Radio, Telegraph, Telephone, and Television. In earlier times, however, smoke signals, drums, light beacons, and various forms of semaphore were used for the same purpose. The information that is transmitted can be in the form of voice, symbols, pictures, or data, or a combination of these. The physical equipment for a telecommunications system includes a transmitter, one or more receivers, and a channel or means of communication such as the air, water, wire, cable, communications satellite, or some combination of these.

The transmission of voice and/or data through any medium by wire, radio, or other electrical electromagnetic, or optical means. Telecommunications includes all aspects of transmitting information.

Communications among computers across distances by use of radio, television, telephone, telegraph and computer networks. Bellow we will say about telecommunications using personal computers to send and receive information and to communicate through standard telephone lines.

Hope this is enough of a lexical view of the interesting world of communication... going to come up with lots more...

next time.... keep surfing!